Genealogy Resources

Descendants of ? RÜDENBERG


First Generation


      1. RÜDENBERG was born about 1750 in Germany.


RÜDENBERG and his spouse had the following children:

  +           2 M       ii.   Moses RÜDENBERG was born in 1786 in Rohu, Unterfranken, Bavaria, Germany and died on 1 May 1875.

+           3 M      iii.   Michael RÜDENBERG was born about 1788.

               4 M      iv.   Leeser RÜDENBERG was born about 1790 in Rohu, Unterfranken, Bavaria. Leeser died young without children.

               5 F        v.   Johanna RÜDENBERG was born about 1793 in Rohu, Unterfranken, Bavaria. Johanna was a deaf-mute and was conscientiously cared for by Moses and Michael for all her long life.




Second Generation



      2. Moses RÜDENBERG was born in 1786 in Rohu, Unterfranken, Bavaria, Germany. He died on 1 May 1875 (that would have made him 99 years old) in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Moses came to Vlotho in 1806. Rüdenbergs were from Riedenberg in Bavaria. Moses married (1) Marianne GOLDSCHMIDT about 1811 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Marianne was born about 1790 in Rahden, Germany. She died about 1820 in Vlotho and was buried about 1820 in Vlotho. Moses married 2nd Friderike KUGELMANN, daughter of ? KUGELMANN and Eva [-?-], about 1825 in Wagenfeld, Lower Saxony, Germany. We have an old letter from Friederike to her daughter Emma dated 1820, Rhineland.[1]


Moses and Marianne had the following children:

               7 F         i.   Betty RÜDENBERG was born about 1812 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Betty married Bernard Silberg in Bassum.

               8 F        ii.   Amalie RÜDENBERG was born about 1814 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Amalie “Maldchen” married Joself Sternfeld in Lemgo.

               9 F       iii.   Marcus RÜDENBERG was born about 1816.

+         10 M      iv.   Henriette RÜDENBERG was born about 1818 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Henriette “Jettchen” married Julius Menke in Gifhorn.


Moses and Friderike had the following children:

             11 F        v.   Johanna RÜDENBERG "Hannchen" was born about 1827 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Johanna married Simson Bendix Weinberg in Dortmund.[2]

+         12 M      vi.   Gustav RÜDENBERG was born on 10 Sep 1830 and died on 8 Apr 1909.

+         13 F      vii.   Pauline RÜDENBERG was born about 1831 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Pauline married Samuel Stern and they lived in Vlotho and Oeynhausen.

             14 F     viii.   Emma RÜDENBERG was born on 3 Dec 1833 and died on 30 May 1912.

+         15 M      ix.   Julie RÜDENBERG was born about 1835 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Julie “Julchen” married Ferdinand Menke in Gifhorn.

             16 M       x.   George RÜDENBERG was born about 1837.

             17 F        xi.   Louis RÜDENBERG was born about 1839 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Louis married Therese Salmony or Talmony from Koln.

+         18 M     xii.   Ida RÜDENBERG was born about 1841 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Ida married Julius Josephs in Bremen.




3. Michael RÜDENBERG () was born about 1790 in Bad Bruckenau, Germany. Michael was Moses' brother and probably came with him to Vlotho in 1806. Michael married (1) Henriette LILIENFELD in  Germany. Henriette was born in Diepman, Germany.[3]


Michael and Henriette had the following children:

             20 M        i.   Max RÜDENBERG was born about 1812 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany.

             21 F        ii.   Bertha RÜDENBERG was born about 1814 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany.

             22 M      iii.   Adolph RÜDENBERG was born about 1816 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany.

+         23 M      iv.   Isaac RÜDENBERG was born about 1818.

             24 M       v.   Hermann RÜDENBERG was born 1820 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany.

             25 M      vi.   Ludwig RÜDENBERG was born 1820 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany.

             26 F      vii.   Amalie RÜDENBERG was born 1822 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany.




Third Generation



9. Marcus RÜDENBERG (Moses) was born about 1816 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Marcus married Rosa Steinberg from Mehle or Jeannette, they had a son, Max, who had a clothing store in Vlotho and a daughter Anna who married Ernest Blum in Montevideo, Uruguay; Gertrude who married Manfred Blatt and they had a daughter Ellen Blatt. Anna died Aug 1953, age 84.




12. Gustav RÜDENBERG (Moses) was born on 10 Sep1830 in Bad Oeynhausen, Germany. He died on 8 Apr 1909 in Hannover, Germany. They lived in Bad Oeynhaussen. Gustav married Rosalie ROSENBERG, daughter of Enoch ROSENBERG and Miriam BEHREND, about 1864 in Germany. Rosalie was born on 8 Jun 1835 in Lubbecke, Lower Saxony, Germany. She died on 11 Sep 1912 in Hannover, Germany. Gustav was married twice.


Gustav and Rosalie had the following children:

+         34 M        i.   Max RÜDENBERG was born about 1865 and died in 1935.

              35 M         ii.  Gustav RÜDENBERG was born on 15 Feb 1868.  He was related to his parents by adoption. Gustav married Elsbeth SALMONY, daughter of Julius Aron SALMONY of Cologne and Paula RÜDENBERG. Elsbeth was born on 27 May 1886. In 1906 she lived in Vorher in Bad Ems near Koblenz.

+         36 M       ii.   Otto RÜDENBERG was born on 15 Aug 1872 and died in 1942.

              37 F         iii.  Paula RÜDENBERG was born about 1874 in Vlotho, Westphalia. She lived in Cologne. Paula may have been the daughter of the second wife.





14. Emma RÜDENBERG (Moses) was born on 3 Dec 1833 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. She died on 30 May 1912 in Bielefeld and was buried in Johanisfriedhof, Bielefeld. Emma married Phillip HERZFELD, son of Herz Joel HERZFELD and Braune NUSSBAUM, on 24 Sep 1859 in Westphalia. Phillip was born on 10 Feb 1829 in Steinheim, Westphalia. He died on 19 Jul 1903 in Bielefeld, and was buried in Johanisfriedhof in Bielefeld.  (SEE HERZFELD FAMILY)




16. George RUDENBERG8 (Moses) was born about 1837 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. George (Schorse) owned a factory of feathers and blankets, in Vlotho. He was divorced in 1896 or 1908.  His nephew Max worked with him. George married Elsbeth HERZFELD9, daughter of Rabbi Levi HERZFELD (1810-1884) , about 1880 in Braunsweig, Lower Saxony, Germany. The marriage ended in divorce. Elsbeth was born in 1858 in Braunschweig. She died in 1946 in Cambridge, Massachusetts. He was Landes-Rabbiner (Rabbi of the state of Braunschweig), he wrote books about the history of the Jews and about linguistics of the Semitic languages. After Elsbeth and George were divorced in 1896. She did not keep her home when all the children had married. She traveled and stayed with her children, sisters, and brothers until she finally joined Reinhold in Cambridge.  She had a sister, Lea who married Albert Hallgarten son of Julius of Frankfort and two other siblings.[4]


George and Elsbeth had the following children:

+         49 M        i.   Gunther Reinhold RÜDENBERG, Dr. was born on 4 Feb 1883 and died on 24 Dec 1961.

+         50 M       ii.   Friedrich RÜDENBERG was born in 1892 and died in 1977.

             51 M      iii.   Werner RÜDENBERG was born in 1882 in Hanover, Saxony, Germany. He died in 1961 in England. Werner married Anni Pinkus (1895-1990?), they had no children. Werner went as a merchant to China at the beginning of the 20th century, he came back to Germany after World War I and wrote a Chinese-German dictionary. Later he added more dictionaries, one Chinese-English and wrote half of Langenscheidt's English-German (1964) dictionary.  He went back to China 1936-8 and then to England, where he later taught German Literature at Queen's College and another college. He had been in school only 10 years. The Nuremberg Laws of September 1935 may have precipitated this move. "The infamous laws forbade Jews any familial, sexual, or professional contact between Jews and Germans. Jews were forbidden to go to plays or movies, to use public transportation, to go into parks, to own radios or bicycles." ("After the Darkness, Reflections on the Holocaust" by Elie Wiesel). A Mr. Jonson helped them quite a bit when they went to England. Anni's sister Lily Pinkus wrote a biography.[5]

+         52 M      iv.   Reinhold Gunther RÜDENBERG Dr. was born on 4 Feb 1883 and died on 24 Dec 1961.

+         53 F        v.   Stefanie RÜDENBERG was born about 1885 and died on 6 Jul 1976.




          12. Gustav RÜDENBERG (Moses) was born about 1829 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany.

Gustav married Rosalie ROSENBERG about 1864 in Germany. Rosalie was born about 1840 in Lubbecke, Lower Saxony, Germany. They lived in Bad Oeynhausen.


Gustav and Rosalie had the following children:

               54 M        i. Max RÜDENBERG was born about 1865 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. He died in 1935 in Germany.

             56 F       iii.   RÜDENBERG was born about 1874 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. This daughter lived in Cologne.




23. Isaac RÜDENBERG (Michael) was born about 1818 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Isaac may have been born in Bad Brukenau, Bavaria or Hesse. Isaac married 1st Henriette WOLFERS about 1850 in  Germany. Henriette was born in Minden, Lower Saxony, Germany.


Isaac and Henriette had the following children:

+         57 M        i.   Adolph RÜDENBERG Dr. was born about 1852.

             58 F        ii.   Helene RÜDENBERG was born about 1854 in  Germany. Helene married Bernhard Van Biema in Krefeld, later she lived with her daughter Ilse Veiel in Basel, where she told much of the present information to Klause Rüdenberg in 1948. Children: Hilde married Wolfgang Wadsmuth in Dresden, divorced and emigrated to New York. Her children Isulde married Weinberg, an eye doctor in New York, Karin married ? Klemm an Engineer in Mannheim and later with G.E. in Schnectady, NY. Ilse married Ernest Veiel a Doctor from Cannstatt, then director with Hoffman LaRoche in Basel.  Her children were Maria and Christopher.  Maria who married Hellmuth Burckhard a lawyer with Huffman in LaRoche, Motevideo, they had Antonie and Constance.  Christopher (Christel), lived in USA and Basel (1948).

             59 F       iii.   Emilie RÜDENBERG was born about 1856 in  Germany. Emilie (Milli) married Paul Hellendahl from Mönchen-Gladbach. Children:  Lotte married Alfred Weil from Stuttgart, lives in New York. Walter married Gretel? from Wurzburg and lived in Philadelphia. Ilse was in Chicago in 1948.




Fourth Generation



34. Max RÜDENBERG (Gustav RÜDENBERG, Moses) was born about 1865 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. He died in 1935 in Germany. Max had a factory making pillow and conforter fillings from chinese down in Hanover with his uncle George. Max married Margarete (beautiful Grete) ?.  There children were Ernst who emigrated to South Africa, Eva who married ? Reinhold and had a ceramic factory in central Germany.  Eva and her husband had a son and daughter, the daughter's name was Claudia.  The Nuremberg Laws of September 1935 may have precipitated this move. "The infamous laws forbade Jews any familial, sexual, or professional contact between Jews and Germans. Jews were forbidden to go to plays or movies; forbidden to use public transportation; forbidden to go into parks; forbidden to own radios or bicycles." ("After the Darkness, Reflections on the Holocaust" by

Elie Wiesel)

36. Otto RÜDENBERG (Gustav RÜDENBERG, Moses) was born on 15 Aug 1872 in Vlotho, Westphalia, Germany. Otto died at Auschwitz concentration camp in late 1942, Auschwitz Poland. Otto had a textile business in Bielefeld, Westphalia, Germany. Otto married Meta Sophia WERTHEIMER about 1918 in Bielefeld. Meta was born on 25 Sep 1882 in Bielefeld. She died on 20 Jul 1942 in Auschwitz. Since Otto died in the Auschwitz concentration, I am pretty sure that Meta did also. Meta was the daughter of Edward and Hedwig (Rosenberg) Wertheimer. Edward was the son of Markus and Fredricka (Seckel) Wertheimer. Hedwig was the daughter of Benedict and Margaret (Homberger) Rosenberg.[6]


They had the following children:

+         67 M        i.   Klaus RÜDENBERG (Otto, Gustav, Moses) was born on 25 Aug 1920 in Bielefeld, Westphalia, Germany. Klaus is a Chemistry and Physics professor at the University of Iowa in Ames. Klaus was sent to Switzerland in 1938 because of the problems in Germany.  He met his wife there. Klaus married Veronika KUTTER about 1947 in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois. Veronika was born on 14 Jul 1922 in Beggingen, Switzerland. Veronika's parents were Herman and Luzia (Scheller) Kuttter.  I believe Luzia was born in Basel, Switzerland.


37. Paula RÜDENBERG (Gustav RÜDENBERG, Moses) was born in 1864. Paula married Julius Aron SALMONY of Cologne, son of Salomon Aron SALMONY of Cologne and Pauline Schilo SALMONY of Cologne. Julius was born on 9 Jun 1859. He died on 16 May 1916.


They had the following children:

             68 F         i.   Elsbeth SALMONY was born on 27 May 1886. She was living in Hannover in  1906, then Bad Ems. Elsbeth married Gustav RÜDENBERG, son (adopted) of  Marcus RÜDENBERG and Rosa STEINBERG. Gustav was born on 15 Feb 1868.

             69 F        ii.   Hedwig SALMONY, He married FRÖHLICH.




49. Reinhold Gunther RÜDENBERG Dr.27 (George, Moses) was born on 4 Feb 1883 in Hanover, Saxony, Germany. He died on 24 Dec 1961 in Massachusetts. Gunther married Lily MINKOWSKI28, daughter of Hermann MINKOWSKI (1840-1900) and Mrs. Hermann Minkowski OPPENHEIMER, about 1919 in Germany. Lily was born on 9 Jun 1898 in Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland. She died on 5 Jun 1983 in Orlando, Orange County, Florida and was buried in 1983 in Mt. Auburn Cemetery, Cambridge, Mass. Lily was the daughter of Auguste (Adler) and Hermann Minkowski (1864-1909).  Hermann was the son of Lewin (c1825-c1884) who was the son of Baruch (c1810--?) who was the son of Isaac (1788-1851/2) son of Aaron Ben Baruch son of Baruch Ben the son of Baruch Jakob (c1752-c1810) son of Jacob ben Judah Loeb (c1722-c1774).[7]


          Notes: Reinhold married Lily the daughter of Prof. Hermann Minkowski, a well known mathematician. Reinhold studied for his electrical engineering and machine design  at Technische Hochschule in Hanover, he submitted his Dr. thesis simultaneously with the final exam for the degree of Diplom-Ingenieur. His first academic employment was at the University of Gottengen as an instructor in mechanical engineering.  In 1908 he started work at Siemens-Schuckertwerke in Berlin. He was in charge of research at Siemens for about 25 years and was Chief Electrical Engineer.  In 1913 he started writing many papers and books and teaching to share his technical experiences.  Reinhold left Germany in1936 for England to become consulting engineer with the General Electric Co. Ltd. In 1938 he received an appointment as Gordon McKay Professor of Electrical Engineering at Harvard in Cambridge, Mass., USA. He and his family lived in Belmont, Mass.  He invented the electronic microscope in the early1930's.


Notes: --------------------------------------------------------------------------------


Notes: 3654556, Rüdenberg, Reinhold d1961

Obituaries on File. Two volumes. Compiled by Felice Levy. New York:

Facts on File, 1979.(ObitOF)



3654557, Rüdenberg, Reinhold 1883-1961

Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines. Volume 2: August, 1949-August, 1952. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1953.(BioIn 2)


Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines. Volume 6: September, 1961-August, 1964. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1965.(BioIn 6) Biography Index. A cumulative index to biographical material in books and magazines. Volume 7: September, 1964-August, 1967. New York: H.W. Wilson Co., 1968.(BioIn 7)


Dictionary of Scientific Biography. Volumes I-XIV. Edited by Charles Coulston Gillispie. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1970.(DcScB) The National Cyclopaedia of American Biography. Volume 47. New York:James T. White & Co., 1965. Use the Index to locate biographies.(NatCAB 47)


The Penguin International Dictionary of Contemporary Biography from 1900 to the Present. Second edition. By Edward Vernoff and Rima Shore. New York: Viking Penguin, 2001. First edition published by New American Library as [The International Dictionary of 20th Century Biography.].(PenIntDc)


Who Was Who in America. A component volume of [Who's Who in American History.]. Volume 4, 1961-1968. Chicago: Marquis Who's Who, 1968.(WhAm 4)



Reinhold (Rüdenberg) came (to join me in Domburg) later, with the car, after the World Power Conference (in Sweden) was finished, so now we could make many excursions in the pretty surroundings and also visit some of the famous Dutch towns and historical buildings like Brgge. Domburgwas located on the far western side of Holland towards Belgium on Theisland of Zeebrügge. We liked it there, but also wondered about the swampy and old canals in the neighborhood, which seemed to have rather stagnating water and sometimes smelled moldy.


After a good vacation the children (Hermann 2 1/2, Angelika 7,Gunther 9) went home with Fräulein Klara (our governess) by sleeper and I traveled home (to Berlin) with Reinhold by car, because on the way he had some stops for Siemens. From an overnight stop about one day's drive from home we telephoned with Fraulein Klara to find out how the children were. She said: "Please don't worry, little Bübchen (Hermann) has been sick, and we had Dr. Michaelis. He just saw the child and said, that everything was fine. He just had a little grippe and tomorrow he can get up.'' This worried me a little and we drove home as fast as we could the next morning.


When we arrived home in the afternoon my mother received us atthe4 gate, her face white as a sheet, saying: "Don't get upset, it is not so bad. Bübchen has Polio! Do not come in yourselves. We have separated he children and Günther and Angela are in my house at the Inklerstrasse."


Bübchen is in his usual room (in our house) and Fraulein Klara, as always next door in her room. She had decided, since she had been exposed to the contagion before knowing about it, she was willing to stay as his nurse.


It was decided that I should live with my mother and the two older children, while Reinhold was with Bübchen in our house Douglasstrasse 18. I did not go into our house on account of the other children. However,  before I left, I was shown our sick little boy on the arm of Fräulein Klara waving down to us from his bedroom. We also talked to Klara to hear from her the story of the last two days:


After the doctor had left, Bübchen was placed on the potty prior to being dressed. When he was told to get up, he could not do it, he had no strength in his knee, no command over one leg and foot, but also some additional weakness in the small of his back. When Dr. Walter Michaelis returned he diagnosed it right as polio. We discussed the best treatment with various medical authorities, since at first we feared his life might be endangered if the paralysis would progress. We soon realize that Bübchen was on the road to recovery, but the fear of having him paralyzed for life haunted us.


My uncle Oskar Minkowski, Professor of internal medicine at Breslau, well known for his discoveries concerning diabetes, was also ahead of his contemporaries in understanding medical problems of other specialties. So we turned to him for clearer concepts. He told us then, that in all probability polio was caused by a virus, not a bacterium, so small that nobody had seen it yet because filters were not fine enough to hold it for observation. Moreover, the physical properties of light rays would not let the human eye distinguish this virus because of its small dimensions. This detailed description of the minute size of the virus particle has a few months later incited Reinhold to invent the electron microscope, which makes use of the physical properties of electron rays, making objects visible of fractional dimensions never seen before.


Uncle Oskar had also told us, that doctors thought that many cases of polio were never diagnosed as such, because the patients seemed to have the flu without any special after-effects. Others had light, others severe or even deadly (fatal) paralysis as a consequence. We we real so very worried that Günther or Angela might similarly be afflicted. Then it seemed to us, that Angela had had some kind of a light influenza before leaving Domburg. Could that have been a case of polio without paralysis? We really became extremely worried: when Günther came down with a fever without any symptoms. The suspicion, that Gunther was also stricken by polio seemed justified since we expected the paralysis to manifest itself only after the fever was gone. Therefore we implored the doctors to try to take preventive measures. Very little real treatment existed, but we found out that some kind of vaccine had been developed at the Pasteur Institute in France, and another type in Sweden. The general medical advice was against the French one, however they were willing to try the Swedish one. They believed it would not arrive soon enough to help much. I am grateful to report that after an anxious week, the (Günther's) fever was gone without leaving any aftereffects.


Thus we were free to plan the best we could think of to help our dear little Bübchen Hermann. There was much difference of opinion of how best to treat afflicted patients. The old method had been to immobilize the affected limb often in a cast and to keep the patient in bed for a long time. Instead we were told that it was necessary to nourish the afflicted nerve cells and to involve them in movement as soon as possible, so Bübchen was kept quiet in bed for only a short while to fully recover from his fever, but then some kind of treatment began. Atfirst Bübchen received some short treatments of his backbone, especially the nerve (spinal) column with some sort of diathermy administered by Dr. Bucky, the inventor of the "Grenzstrahlen". Then he was subjected to involuntary movements of the afflicted muscles by electric shock(treatments). The poor little kid hated all this, it could be painful, but his father took him to Dr. Bucky trying to distract him and make him enjoy the car ride. The dosage was difficult because of his age.


When sufficient time was assumed to have elapsed after the acute stage of the disease, gradually more active treatment was started. The boy first received expert massage by a trained nurse-- our Schwester Kate, who had been trained by neurologists and whose work was supervised by a specialist. Then she started exercises of the weakened or even powerless limbs. (Much later, a similar though controversial regimen of treatments was named the Sister Kenney method). These exercises had to be increased very, very slowly. We were told that the child was fortunate in having lost (only) the use of most of the quadriceps muscle of one leg. Because this muscle is made of four parts and one part had a little life left, it was hope that this treatment would help in the recovery of this one section. Also along the upper thigh runs the muscle Sartorious and this muscle, it was hoped, could be made to take over much of the work of the destroyed quadriceps. Since the lower leg was also somewhat weakened a distortion of the foot in the future was feared. To avoid this, Hermannli was subjected to stretching exercises.


Schwester Käte came almost every day, later every second day for the treatment. It seemed very important, that as much as possible of this would be done in a playful way, so that the child  (now just 3 years old) would not be too unhappy. We tried to find many different effective ways, for instance stretching exercises were very well possible when walking in winter on skis, or in his lessons, making him hold up his legs by holding a heavy medicine ball. This ball could also be rolled on the ground and was practice for the feet. Poor little Hermann had the hardest time when he had to learn to walk the first one or two steps up and down stairs and it took much out of him till he could master a short flight of stairs.


It was in the fall of 1930 that I gave up my classes in botany. I wanted to spend more time with my youngster, hoping that by playing with him I could all along make him exercise a little an help with his recovery. We saw the progress, but most of all we wanted to make him happy, he had such a cheerful disposition before being stricken.


We tried to find out where Hermann could have picked up this dreaded infection and corresponded about it with the town doctor of Domburg. He declined that the sojourn there could have anything to do with it and suggested that the child might have got infected on his trip home in the sleeper on the railroad. During that year quite a few cases of infantile paralysis had occurred in Europe, many of them with much more tragic effect. This was an incentive for Reinhold to try to help his fellow men by furthering an understanding of the disease. He knew from our talks with Uncle Oskar that the reason for the lack of understanding of the disease had to be found in the fact that the human eye could not distinguish the causing agent in a light microscope. It was probably cause by a filterable virus, i.e. a virus too small to be caught in existing filters. On the basis of his knowledge of Physics Reinhold realized that an instrument had to be built which could give a much higher magnification and resolution which was impossible with light rays. By using electron rays instead of light rays Reinhold expected to achieve this.




During his assistantship in Gottingen Reinhold was a close friend of many young scientists in fields other than his own. He himself then was working for Professor Prandl as Assistant (Instructor) in mechanical engineering (the job which had been offered to him by his former Professor who had moved to Gottingen). One of


Reinhold 's friends was for instance Fritz (Hans?) Busch who already then showed that electron beams could be directed like light rays in a lens. It was on the basis of this electronic lens, however crude, that Reinhold invented the electron microscope. ............(There is some confusion here -- in Berlin Reinhold had apparently remained in contact with Busch, and was aware of Busch's 1927work and publication on magnetic focusing coils. Also Reinhold had taken a graduate course on Electrodynamics under E. Wiechert in 1907 while at Gottingen, the same Wiechert who had investigated the focusing, better called concentration or "striction" coil in 1899)



BIOGRAPHY: 1930-31....


In those weeks Reinhold had a pad of paper at his bed side table. When he could not sleep because he worried about the boy, he would ponder his invention and make drawings. As soon as Reinhold had confidence that his invention might work Dr. Fischer of the Patent Department of Siemens was eager to hurry the patent application. Almost simultaneously the patent was applied for in Germany and in the United States with a priority of May 30, 1931. ............(This needs correction. Actually, the U.S. Patent Application had to be translated and sent to New York for filing in the U.S. Patent Office within one year thereafter, and was appropriately filed there on May 27,1932)....................


The American (and other foreign) patents were processed as applied for. The German application encountered some delay and then after1933 was not (then) granted because the inventor was not an Aryan. During the negotiations with the Patent Office it had to be cut up into many parts, each one much less effective than the total patent as applied for (originally). These patents were granted after the Nazi regime in World War II, granted when they had (almost) already expired.


Many contemporaries have expressed doubts that Reinhold could invent this instrument without more previous experimenting. However, this is not the least bit amazing to me on the basis of a thorough knowledge of the physical laws which would make the instrument workable since Reinhold was gifted with an unusual inventive imagination, (and) since hew as able to visualize the best way to make use of these laws as an engineer. I have watched this course of devising an invention in a number of (other) less important cases.


After the patent application was formulated, I believe that some experimental work was done at Reinhold's lab (oratory). However, these experiments were later not pursued with the usual intensity because one of the Siemens officials, Mr. ..., was opposed to it, since he did not expect that the instrument would ever be of commercial value. In the years after the application of the patent the Nazi influence was slowly growing. Reinhold was conscious of it and it dampened his enthusiasm to try to go ahead with such a complicated development against the wish of his superiors. (More in our files)


We both were convinced of the value of the invention and talked about it very much after the application for the patent had been handed in. I remember going on an evening walk with Reinhold as we frequently did, it was dark and humid and the trees had lost their leaves-- it may have been end of 1931 (1930 7) or perhaps before spring of 1932 (1931?) that we discussed possible applications of the electron microscope, especially the value for mankind by making virus particles visible, thus bringing our fellow men a new insight by seeing with electron rays instead of light rays. I am familiar with light microscope work and could therefore fully appreciate the value of higher magnifications paired with increased resolution. 1932-33....


On the whole these were good years. We saw that our little boy was slowly improving. The two older children were doing well at school, our pretty garden seemed the best environment for the children to play, especially Hermann who had many opportunities to strengthen his leg. His sister Kate came often to help him exercise him, but gradually less often.




Among ourselves we often discussed whether we should not leave Germany with our children and find a new home. However, at that time Reinhold having a family of 3 children did not want to leave Germany without a job in another country.



ca. 1933....

Reinhold used to discuss these problems with Karl Friedrich von Siemens, the head of the firm. During the first years of the Nazi regime Karl Friedrich tried to persuade Reinhold to be patient, that it would all blow over an later seem to be like a bad dream, that he would be able to keep Reinhold in his present job and would protect him, as long as Reinhold would be modest and would abstain from trips outside of Germany in his capacity as Chief Electrical Engineer of the firm.



It was only later, after the Nuremberg laws were passed, that the (Karl Friedrich) understood Reinhold's desire to leave Germany on account of our children and that he would help him to get away and do for him all that was in his power.


BIOGRAPHY: Lily Rüdenberg, written 1980-83 (insertions by HGR)




.......In 1936, after the two older children were at schools outside Germany, Reinhold left Berlin for London on a business trip on behalf of Siemens. His wife Lily with their now 9-year-old Hermann followed a day later, to meet her husband in Holland and proceed on to England. From London Reinhold wrote his superiors at Siemens that he was resigning from the firm. In England he worked at the British General Electric Company as Consulting Engineer.


After 1938....

.......In October 1938 the family moved to Cambridge, and then Belmont, Massachusetts, when Reinhold received a call as Professor and Head of the Department of Electrical Engineering at Harvard University. He taught there until

his retirement in 1952.


.......In 1943 (?) Reinhold Rüdenberg was notified that his US patents on the electron microscope (then assigned to Siemens) had been confiscated by the then Alien Property Custodian as enemy property. To obtain restitution of title, after 1944 as a U.S. citizen, and press his claim of primary ownership, he had to turn to the Federal Court of Massachusetts. In 1947 the Court returned judgment in his favor, ownership returned to Rüdenberg and several manufacturers were licensed until the patents expired in 1953-54.


.......He was delighted when Farrand Optical Company asked him in 1945 (?) to become their consultant and help them design an electron microscope. Newly hired staff were aided by Rüdenberg and designed and built an electrostatic instrument with excellent resolution. This association also led to two publications, one on a new neutral electrostatic lens with hyperbolic field, and a paper on the electron gun as illuminator. Unpublished work also was concerned with the design of improved magnetic shielding. To his regret Farrand discontinued this work in the early 1950ties after two instruments had been built, as the company's workload of optical instruments absorbed all their resources with the beginning of the Korean war.


So again a war had intervened!


In 1946, Reinhold Rüdenberg was awarded the Honor Medallion of the Stevens Institute of Technology "For notable achievement in Electron Optics ....In 1931, Dr. Rüdenberg outlined the fundamental requirements for both the electrostatic and electromagnetic lens electron microscope..."


During 1961 some of his friends began collecting affidavits and background material for a possible major prize award for his invention. This was no longer feasible after Reinhold Rüdenberg died on December 25, 1961.


Gunther and Lily had the following children:

+         75 M        i.   Hermann Gunther RÜDENBERG (Reinhold Gunther, George, Moses) was born on 9 Aug 1920 in Charlottenburg, Berlin, Brandenburg, Germany and was christened in K.W.Gedachtnist, Berlin. Gunther married Joan Marian RITCHIE on 21 Dec 1952 in Orleans, Barnstable County, Massachusetts. Joan was born on 7 Jul 1920 in Duluth, St. Louis County, Minnesota. They live in Beverly, Massachusetts. Joan is the daughter of Julian and Lucile L. (Schmidt) Ritchie

+         76 F        ii.   Fanny Angelika RÜDENBERG (Gunther Reinhold RUDENBERG, George, Moses) was born on 27 Jun 1922 in Berlin, Germany. Angelika married Bob Howard and they have lived in Kansas City, Lawrence, Utah, and Burlington, Vermont.

+         77 M      iii.   Dr. Frank Hermann RÜDENBERG (Reinhold Gunther, George, Moses,) was born on 4 Dec 1927 in Berlin, Brandenburg, Germany. He died on 12 Mar 1994 in Galveston, Galveston County, Texas. Hermann married Jean HOLLADAY15,16 on 28 Feb 1952 in Chicago, Cook County, Illinois. The marriage ended in divorce. Jean was born on 10 Nov 1930 in Warsaw, Poland.  He married 2nd Mary Helen (Toombs) Ryder a music therapist 9 Jan 1979. He lived in Galveston.  Hermann was a physiologist at the University of Texas Medical Branch.



3654550,Rüdenberg, F Hermann 1927-American Men & Women of Science. A biographical directory of today's leaders in physical, biological, and related sciences. 12th edition, Physical & Biological Sciences. Seven volumes. New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1971.(AmMWSc 12P) Who's Who in the South and Southwest. 15th edition, 1976-1977. Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1976.(WhoSSW 15) Who's Who in the South and Southwest. 16th edition, 1978-1979. Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1978.(WhoSSW 16) Who's Who in the South and Southwest. 17th edition, 1980-1981. Wilmette, IL: Marquis Who's Who, 1980.(WhoSSW 17)


3654551 Rüdenberg, Frank Hermann 1927-

American Men & Women of Science. A biographical directory of today's leaders in physical, biological, and related sciences. 13th edition, Physical & Biological Sciences. Seven volumes. New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1976.(AmMWSc 13P) American Men & Women of Science. A biographical directory of today's leaders in physical, biological, and related sciences. 14th edition. Eight volumes. New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1979.(AmMWSc 14) American Men & Women of Science. A biographical directory of today's leaders in physical, biological, and related sciences. 15th edition. Seven volumes. New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1982.(AmMWSc 15) American Men & Women of Science. A biographical directory of today's leaders in physical, biological, and related sciences. 16th edition. Eight volumes. New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1986.(AmMWSc 16)


American Men & Women of Science. A biographical directory of today's leaders in physical, biological,and related sciences. 17th edition. Eight volumes. New York: R.R. Bowker Co., 1989.(AmMWSc 17) American Men & Women of Science. A biographical directory of today's leaders in physical, biological and related sciences. 18th edition, 1992-1993. Eight volumes. New Providence, NJ: R.R. Bowker Co., 1992.(AmMWSc 18) American Men & Women of Science(TM) (Bowker(R)). A biographical directory of today's leaders in physical, biological and related sciences. 19th edition. Eight volumes. New Providence, NJ: R.R. Bowker Co., 1994.(AmMWSc 19) Who's Who in the South and Southwest. 23rd edition, 1993-1994. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who, 1993.(WhoSSW 23)



50. Friedrich RÜDENBERG (George, Moses) was born in 1892 in Hanover, Germany. Friedrich married Johanna ROSENFELDER about 1923 in Freiberg, Wurttemberg, Germany. Johanna was born in 1898 in Frith-Bayern Germany. Johanna (Hansi) lives in Israel with her daughter Elisheva who has sent me some good information on the family. Friedrich died in 1977. He volunteered as a pilot (4 years) and finally flew in Richthofen-Geschwasler, in World War I. He received the "Iron Cross" (1st Class). He joined AEC in Berlin and was sent to Istanbul in 1931. He went to Palestine with his family in 1936. They settled in Haifa and he worked for the Palestine Electric Corporation, he was sent to buy for that company in Germany 1954-60 after which he and his wife returned to Haifa. He was an engineer.[8]


Notes: http://people.sinclair.edu/thomasmartin/knights/index2.htm Friedrich Rüdenberg was born in 1892 in Hanover. As a young man he studied to become an electrical engineer,

and he had just finished his courses and was preparing to take his state exams when the war started. Rüdenberg postponed his education and volunteered for duty. He applied to an aviation detachment and after completing the basic training started going on reconnaissance missions. He collected valuable data and was awarded the Iron Cross in mid-1917. Because of his excellent record, he was selected for fighter pilot school and after his training was assigned to Jagdstaffel 10, under Richthofen’s wing command. Toward the end of the war he was allowed to complete his education, and after the war he taught for several years at the university level. He eventually was made Technical Director of the Istanbul branch of General Electric, but in1936 he was dismissed from his job because he was Jewish. He wisely decided not to return to Germany but instead immigrated to Palestine.


Friedrich and Johanna had the following children:

             78 F         i.   Elisheva RÜDENBERG was born on 13 May 1924 in  Germany. Elisheva (called Elisabet after her grandmother) joined Kibbuz Beth-Ha'arava at the northern end of the Dead Sea.  She married (Isidore) Yitzchak Lowinstein (name later changed to Litan).  The kibbuz was abandoned in the 1948 war, they built a new kibbuz in the north: Gesher-Ha'siv, left to Mahariya in 1958.  She was a Hebrew teacher for adults.  Her husband died in 1986. 


             79 F        ii.   Annette Ruth RÜDENBERG was born in 1927 in Germany. She died in 1978 in Israel. Annette was a nurse, she married Abraham Hamburger, they both died in a car crash. 




53. Stefanie RÜDENBERG (George, Moses) was born about 1885 in Hanover, Saxony, Germany. She died on 6 Jul 1976. Stefanie married Alfred WICHERT, son of Ernst Friedrich Wilhelm WICHERT and Julie Fanny Caroline KLUMPP, on 9 Jun 1910. Alfred was born on 2 Nov 1881. He died on 22 Oct 1927. Her son Ulrich (b.1911) lived in Freiburg, Bneisgaur, Germany. He married at the age of 79 to Heide Falke. Ulrich was an engineer, went to technical high school in Mainz. Ulrich built bridges in the Black Forest and plays the flute. 


Stefanie's second son Gunter (b.1913) was widowed in the early 1950's.  His daughter Ursula (1952-1990) was an epileptic, she married Herbert Hopp and they had a son Andreas.  Gunter married Ursula's tutor and had another daughter, Christine and he was soon divorced.  He died at the age of 78 by drowning in the Ammersee while sailing.  He learnt very much about epilepsy and was active organizing a group for self-help for epileptics.  Gunter was an Engineer and worked for National Cash Register in Darmstadt.


Notes: http://www.wichert.de/stammtafeln/tafel1/id407002.htm


Alfred and Stefanie had the following children:

             83 M        i.   Ulrich WICHERT was born on 9 Sep 1911 in Courbenoi ?.

Ulrich married Heide FALK in 1989.

+         84 M       ii.   Günther WICHERT (Stefanie RÜDENBERG, George, Moses) was born on 23 May 1913 in Sevres. He died in Jun 1991. Günther married (1) Hedwig STEIGLER in 1964 in E. Schweiz. Hedwig was born on 15 Nov 1934, she died on 21 Feb 1997.


57. Adolph RÜDENBERG Dr. (Isaac, Michael) was born about 1852 in Germany. Adolf married Johanna WOLFERS from Bonn and may have had a child named Alfred. He owned a silk factory in Krefeld. Children: a) Sophie married Dr. Eugene Meyer and they live in Aukland, New Zealand. b) Fritz was wounded in WWI, died in the USA. c) Berta married Maler Zimmerman in Tals, Bavaria, divorced and emigrated to Aukland, New Zealand and had a child named Eyke. d) Luise married Maler Moller in Hamburg and divorced then immigrated to New York. Her daughter Ruth married Uno an officer in Java (1948). e) Karl emigrated to USA, changed his last name to Ruden, he married an American nurse, they have two daughters and live in New Jersey. f) Doris married a dentist from Munide and immigrated to Dunedin, New Zealand.


They had the following children:

             85 F         i.   Sophie RUDENBERG. Sophie married Eugene MEYER Dr.. Eugene was born in New Zealand?

             86 M       ii.   Fritz RÜDENBERG was born in Germany. He died in USA.

             87 F       iii.   Berta RUDENBERG Berta married M. ZIMMERMAN in Hamburg. The marriage ended in divorce.



[1] GENEALOGY:  From Dr. Monika Minniger, Am Tiefen Weg 3, 4800 Bielefeld, West Phalia, Germany

[2] Ibid.

[3] GENEALOGY:  Lucia Ruedenberg, New York City

[4] GENEALOGY:  Elisheva Litan. 26 Nordau str., 22384 Nelanija, Israel

[5] Ibid.

[6] Information from Lucia Rüdenberg, Otto and Meta were her grandparents.

[7] BIRTH-DEATH-MARRIAGE:  His son Gunther filled in the missing information in 1994

[8] GENEALOGY:  Dr. Monika Minniger, Am Tiefen Weg 3, 4800 Bielefeld, West Phalia, Germany